Corn Ethanol: Who Pays? Who Benefits? (Hoover Institution Press Publication)
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My Orders. Track Orders. Important Links. Follow Us. App Download. US UK. The potential to sequester C through switchgrass cultivation will depend on initial soil C inventories, prevailing climate, soil type, and site management. Biomass Bioenergy , 14 , A review with 23 refs.
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Increased atm. CO2, caused partly by burning fossil fuels, is assumed to elevate the risk of global warming, while nitrate contamination of surface runoff and groundwater from fertilizer and agricultural wastes constitutes a serious environmental hazard on a regional scale. Switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. CO2 accumulation by replacing fossil fuels and sequestering C. It could also improve soil productivity by C sequestration, and reduce NO contamination of water by absorbing N lost from fertilizer and agricultural waste if planted in filter strips on adjacent land.
The potential impacts of switchgrass on C and N balances was studied from current literature, unpublished data and on-going research. Replacing fossil fuels with switchgrass, or any other biomass, will have a much greater effect on atm. CO2 than C sequestration.
This is because replacing fossil fuels provides a cumulative effect, while C sequestration offers only a one-time benefit. Furthermore, switchgrass will provide net gains in C sequestration only if it replaces annual row crops, but not if it replaces grazed pasture. Nitrogen recovery by switchgrass in an Alabama study was Mean annual temperatures EC , based on year climate normals, for the five regions were NP 8.
Significant soil C gains were predicted following switchgrass establishment on converted cropland in all regions 7. C SOC inventories cm deep were compared under different types of plant cover at four switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. At some locations the statistical power assocd.
A min. The MDD is the smallest detectable difference between treatment means once the variation, significance level, statistical power, and sample size are specified. The anal. These measurement limitations have implications for monitoring and verification of proposals to ameliorate increasing global atm. CO2 concns. With respect to fossil fuels, some of these costs are estimated to be quite high.
Military costs of protecting mideast oil supplies are also not considered here nor are anticipated increases in jobs associated with converting from centralized fossil fuel acquisition systems to decentralized production of renewable fuels through agriculture. XXI, No. An "advanced technol. Both scenarios involve large plants 2. Key conversion technol. First-law thermodn.
Combining advanced ethanol prodn. American Chemical Society. A review with refs. The application of biotechnol.
Ken Glozer's New Book on Corn Ethanol (Hoover University Press)
Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnol. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnol. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technol.
Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technol.
Advances are needed in pretreatment technol. Important biotechnol. With respect to product diversification, a distinction is made between replacement of a fossil resource-derived chem. The substitution strategy involves larger transition issues but is seen as more promising in the long term. Metabolic engineering pursuant to the prodn. In many cases, it is likely to be more successful to engineer a desired pathway into an organism having useful industrial properties rather than trying to engineer such often multi-gene properties into host organisms that do not have them naturally.
Identification of host organisms with useful industrial properties and development of genetic systems for these organisms is a research challenge distinctive to biocommodity engineering. At its current nascent state of development, the definition and advancement of the biocommodity field can benefit from integration at multiple levels. These include tech. We anticipate that coprodn.
We see biocommodity engineering as a legitimate focus for graduate study, which is responsive to an established personnel demand in an industry that is expected to grow in the future. Graduate study in biocommodity engineering is supported by a distinctive blend of intellectual elements, including biotechnol. Cited By. This article is cited by publications. Russell W. DOI: Tze Ling Ng, J.
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Wei Lu and Tianzhu Zhang. Pamela R. Life cycle assessment of castor-based biorefinery: a well to wheel LCA. Biomass production from neglected and underutilized tall perennial grasses on marginal lands in India: a brief review. Energy, Ecology and Environment , 3 4 , Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy , 40 2 , Switchgrass impact on selected soil parameters, including soil organic carbon, within six years of establishment. Cacho, M. Negri, C. Zumpf, P. Introducing perennial biomass crops into agricultural landscapes to address water quality challenges and provide other environmental services.
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment , 7 2 , e Ashwani Kumar, Shikha Roy. Efthymia Alexopoulou, Andrea Monti, H. Papazoglou, Myrsini Christou. Yohannes Tadesse Yimam, Tyson E. Ochsner, Garey A. Hydrologic cost-effectiveness ratio favors switchgrass production on marginal croplands over existing grasslands. A concept of diverse perennial cropping systems for integrated bioenergy production and ecological restoration of marginal lands in India.
Ecological Engineering , , Zachary G. Loman, Ethan J. Greene, Bradley R. Wheat, Stephen Demarais, Darren A. Miller, Scott A.